its name from Sindhu (the name of river Indus).
Historically it comprised of the whole Indus valley
from Kashmir to the Arabian Sea. Modern Sind,
geographically, is bounded by Baluchistan, Khirthar
and Halar mountains on the West, Sibi and Bughti
areas on the North, Bhawalpur and Rajasthan on
the North-East and East and the Arabian Sea on
the South. The entire landmass can be divided
into three parts. The Central part which has a
rich alluvial soil and through this passes the
river Indus. On the left are the sandy and desert
areas of Sind, and on the right the mountains
extending along the entire border to the Arabian
Along river Indus
is spread the splendour of Sind. River Indus has
ruled and regulated Sind socially, culturally,
economically and politically. It has decided the
fate of Sind in war and in peace.
In history, Sind has had
more to do on its own or with countries on its
west than with India (Hind). Hind and Sind were
separate territories. Sind had greater contact
with Arabia, Iraq, Iran and Afghanistan than with
The Indian hold on Sind
began from the days of Delhi Sultanate but always
remained casual, precarious and uncertain. Greek
historians debated whether river Indus was the
dividing line between Hind and Sind. The Persian
and Arabian travellers and historian and geographers
always emphasised that Indus valley formed the
buffer zone between India and western countries.
Moen-jo-Daro civilization is a non-Aryan civilisation
and so different from other civilisations in India.
Sind is an archeological
oasis. In the history of Sind there appears to
be a vacuum between 2500 to 2000 B.C.; and it
is only after that we come to the more reliable
and more dependable portion of Sind history. History
of Sind begins form 520 to 515 B.C. when Darius
I sent forces and annexed Sind to the Persian
Empire. Two centuries later, Sind was visited
by Alexander the Great whose marches, sojourns
and bevouacs through the valley have been recorded
by Greek historians. Sehwan is said to have been
founded by Alexander the Great, and his return
march to Greece took him to Kharan Baluchistan.
Sind remained under Greek-Mangolian
influence for sometime as is evident from the
finds of Moen-jo-Daro. For sometime the rulers
of Sind lived under the suzeranity of Mauryan
dynasty. Greek rule was re-established by Bacterian
Greek Conquest in 195 B.C.
The Greeks were followed
by Scythians who were Turks by race. Later about
100 B.C. Buddhist influence worked and prevailed
as is found from material discovered in Moen-Jo-Daro.
Scythians had their centre of activity in Bambhore,
and they advanced along the coast of the Arabian
Sea. The Scythians and Kushans were of Turkish
descent and this brought Sind under the influence
of Turkish culture One of the great emperors of
Kushan dynasty, Kanishka became the protector
of Buddhism which had spread in Sind form 100
B.C. to 100 A.D. One of Kanishka's successors
ruled Sind and his coins have been found at Moen-jo-Daro.
Turkish influence increased
under the Parthian kings and evidence of their
rule is found in Seistan, Kandhar and Sind. At
this stage Brahmanism had established its foothold
in Sind among the ruling classes, but the masses
of people continued to follow Buddhism. Turkish
influence got some ascendancy under the Huns and
thus Buddhism received a set back. The Huns dominated
Persia and Sind. Under Naosherwan, Sind was annexed
to the Persian empire. The rise of Sassanid empire
in the third century brought Sind under the sway
of Persia. Hun influence increased after the death
of emperor Feroz and over-powered Persia. They
defeated Gupta power in 495.
In the sixth century Sind
became independent of Persia. Persian influence
waned after the death of Khusrow Pervez. With
the weakening of Persia, Chuch the ruler of Sind
emphasised independence and tried to invad the
Makran province of Persia. This brought him in
contact with the Arab forces in Makran.
A period of hostility between
Arabs and Chuch began and this got worsened during
the reign of Dahar, the son of Chuch. Arabs tried
to follow the policy of peace and co-existence
but Dahar made it impossible, and Hujjaj Bin Yusif
the Umayyad Governor of Iraq was forced to send
Arab forces under Muhammed Bin Qassim to chastise
Dahar. A policy of restraint was followed by pious
Caliphate and Ummayads, and only when peaceful
efforts failed, Sind had to be conquered and made
part of the Ummayed rule in 712.
For about 400 years from
now on, Sind remained an integral part of Ummayed
and Abbasid dynasties. The Provincial Governors
were appointed by the Arab Central Governments,
and history had recorded some 37 names of these
governors. By the end of 9th century the Saffarids
administered Sind of Baghdad. After the weakening
of the Central Arab Authority, local Arab dynastic
rule continued for nearly 130 years which included
the Fatamid influence from Egypt. Sultan Mahmood
and his son Masood came next. The Sumras of Sind
came under Fatamid influence, but they subsequently
revolted and established their independent rule
Arab Rule brought Sind within
the orbit of Muslim civilization. Sindhi as a
language developed further and Naskh was introduced.
Sindhi scholars began to play their part in various
Arab and Muslim empires. The evidence of Mansura,
the Capital of Arabs in Sind, testifies to the
greatness of Arab administration.
Sumaras (1060-1350) were
the native sons of Sind and they fraternized with
the Arabs. They accepted Islam and grew strong
and established independent rule in Sind. Names
of 21 Sumra rulers are recorded in history. They
ruled Sind for about 300 years. The great Sindhi
romantic stories of Doda Sumra and Alauddin inform
us of the invasion of Alauddin and the resistence
put up by the Sumras. Tharri, Muhmmad Tur and
Rupah were centres of their activities. This is
considered to be the most romantic period in Sind
history which gave birth to patriotic literature
and folk songs. In this period lived Qalandar
Lal Shahbaz at Sehwan.
The Sumras were followed
by Summas (1350-1520) who had accepted Islam in
the 8th Century. They called themselves Jams.
They made Thatta their capital. The tomb of Jam
Nizamuddin the 17th ruler at Makli is a great
architectural beauty. It was during this period
that Sind came in direct contact with Delhi and
Persian became the official language in place
of Arabic. This period marks the beginning of
Sufistic thoughts and teaching in Sind.
At this time lived Shah
Abdul Karim of Bhurai the Poet Saint of Sind.
He was grandfather of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai.
At this time also lived Makhdoom Nooh of Hala.
He was the first man to translate the Holy Quran
into Persian in the Indo-Pakistan sub-continent.
On the death of Mirza Hassan,
Sind was divided into two parts. The kingdom of
Thatta under Mirza Isa Turkhan and kingdom at
Bakhar of Sultan Mahmood Khan. The Turkish rules
(1555-1592) never pulled together well and this
facilitated the Portuges incursions in Sind. The
Portuges sacked Thatta in 1557, burning the city
and massacring its population. This invasion increased
further hostility among the sons of Mirza Isa
in which Mirza Baqi won and he ruled with high
handedness and terror. Peace returned to Sind
in the reign of Mirza Jani Beg. During his time
Mughal armies marched against Sind and Mirza Jani
Beg surrendered to Khane-Khanan.
Sind was thus conquered
by Emperor Akbar but is was still administered
as a Jagir by Mirza Jani Beg and his son Mirza
Ghazi Beg. After his death, Sind passed under
the direct control of Mughal Emperor. Nearly 40
governors were appointed during the Mughal period
(1592-1773) who served in Sind.
Sind was a new real change
by the second half of the 16th century when Kalhoras
established their authority in territories of
Dadu and Larkana. The Mughal rule was confined
to Thatta and its surrounding area. Kalhoras conquered
Thatta, soon after they had consolidated their
authority in the north.
During this period (1700-1780)
the Kalhoras designed their administrative system
on the lines of Mughals and took great interest
in architecture and built a number of mosques
and monuments at Rohri, Sukkur, Thatta and Sehwaan.
Kalhoras claimed their lineage from Hazarat Abbas
and produced some famous men. By the end of the
17th century Kalhora rule was firmly established
and had received Mughal Imperial recognition during
the reign of Farrukh Sayair. Mian Noor Mohammad
Kalhora was able to carry Kalhora administration
to Thatta and his son Ghulam Shah was one of the
most illustrious rulers of that dynasty. He founded
Hyderabad. This is when Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai
lived and gave us his poetry. This is the period
in which Makhdoom Mohammad Hashim Thattavi Shah
built the tomb of Shah Abdul Latif Bhitai. After
his death the Kalhora power weakened and under
the leadership of Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur the
Baloch tribes revolted against the Kalhoras and
defeated Mian Abdul Nabi in the battle of Halani.
The Talpuras of Sind soon
after captured Karachi, Khairpur and Umarkot.
They ruled Sind for about 60 years (1782-1843)
and on account of their tribal dissensions, rivalries
and weaknesses they made it possible for the British
to come in. In the year 1843 Sind was conquered
by Sir Charles Napier and the Mirs of Sind were
defeated in the battles if Miani, Dabo and Kunri.
The British began their attack on Sind from their
establishments in Mumbai and Gujrat and that is
way Sind was annexed to the Mumbai Presidency.
In the beginning of the
20th century struggle was started for separation
of Sind from the Mumbai Presidency, and this demand
gained concrete shape in the Round Table Conference
of 1931-32 when it became a real issue.
Sind was a very small territory
in area and in population but in history it has
played its part in educational, Literary, administrative,
political and international spheres out of all
proportions to its size. Sindhi scholars, sufis
and administrators have left their mark in history
from North Africa to India form the 9th century
As a result of the Round
Table Conference and promulgation of the Government
of India Act 1935, Provincial Assembly Elections
were held and Sind became an autonomous province
of India form 1936.
Sind continued to be a separate
province of Pakistan till the year 1955 when by
administrative orders it was merged into One Unit
of west Pakistan. It created many amount of ill-will
and had blood resulting in many tragedies. The
artificial scheme of One Unit had to be abandoned
and it was undone, and all the old Provinces of
Pakistan were re-established in 1970.